One of the objectives of durability analysis is to predict the magnitudes
of the local cyclic stresses and strains experienced at the hot-spot of
many components subjected to fatigue loading. Most estimates of component stress however,
have been calculated elasticly, by means of either traditional manual calculations
or elastic FEA methods. It is then necessary to translate the elastic
calculated stress at the critical locations into estimates of elastic-plastic
stress and strain behavior. Of the several methods of accomplishing this
translation, the one most popularly adopted by most software methods is the
Neuber [1-3] plasticity correction.
Fig. 1 : Correcting an Elastic Stress Calculation for Material Plasticity
As depicted in Fig._1, the Neuber correction can be set into three
Using elastic calculation methods compute the stress and strain
at the fatigue hot-spot.
Compute the energy or product of elastic stress multiplied by
Using the stabilized cyclic stress-strain curve of the material
at the hot-spot find the cyclic stress and cyclic strain that
give the same energy product as in Step 2.
One can find examples of the stabilized cyclic stress-strain curve
in fatigue databases such as
When you find the material of interest
Fig. 2a shows the stress-strain behavior of a un-notched, axial sample starting from
the initial stress-strain origin with subsequent straining through a series of
simple fluctuating strain (or stress) cycles. It is apparent that the
Fig. 2a : Movement of the stress strain locus during straining
of cyclically stabilized aluminum
initial loading path from the origin is different in size than the loading path
of the subsequent hysteresis loops. A commonly used approximation is that the
cyclic path is a factor of two larger than the initial path. Generally this is
referred to as "Masing" type behavior[4,5]. Similar behavior is exhibited in
multiaxial cyclic conditions[6,7], but for many fatigue problems a one-dimensional
approach suffices. An example of a strain sequence for HSLA 350 steel:
Fig. 2b : ( If image above is not "moving" hit "Shift + reload" on browser. )
There are two similar curves shown in figure_3. The one on the left side is the
stabilized cyclic stress-strain curve generally derived from uniaxial fatigue test
samples, while on the right is the same curve with co-ordinates multiplied by a factor
of two. Both curves use the equivalent elastic energy product to solve for the
stress-strain magnitudes of each half-cycle of the loading history.
Fig. 4: Application of Initial and Cyclic Neuber Solutions.
More details of how these features are modelled for fatigue purposes can be
found in reference_.
of this web site there are typically three entries for each
data set. An example:
The first item, on the left is a text display and of the "raw" fatigue
test data. Data can be added to these files, either on-line or locally, and plots
created by clicking on the "Send" button.
The second item "_Fitted_" is a html file of a median line fit of the raw data.
It would be an input file for any software that performs a plasticity correction
and calculates the life based on the resulting local stress-strain hysteresis loops.
The third item, "_Calculator" is a html form which incorporates the "Fitted" file above,
and when submitted (click on Send), will calculate and display the local stress-strain
response to the nominal stress inputs as predicted by the Neuber plasticity correction.
Life is computed by using the local stress-strain loops maximum and minimum stresses and strains.
The software that performs these calculations is available in a link under the topic
Other Links below.
A screen shot image of how to use the calculators is
For an example set of screen shots of a typical usage with explanations: